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Here, now we talking about learning the spoken language
But fisrt what is speaking?
Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.
Speaking is very important in part of English Languge. The goal teacher of teaching speaking should improve student’s communication skills because the students can express themself and learn how to follow social and cultural rules appropriate in each communication.
Learning the spoken langauge guiding principles:
- Meaning must come first : if children do not understand the spoken language, they cannot learn it.
- To learn discourse skills, children need both to participate in discourse and to build up knowledge and skills for participation.
Discourse & Discourse Events
Discourse refers to conversation or longer units to talk, such as stories or songs. The target for teaching discourse should be as a real language use: to be able to use the foreign language with real people for real purposes in a proper context.
Discourse events refers to naturally bounded use of language at any length. When teacher and learners interact on tasks and activites, they are involved in a discourse event.
As children move through infancy, they begin to communicate with others about things in their share world, and develop their vocabulary of labels alongside their ability to categorise (Locke 1993).
Scaffolding as for social interaction.
Can the child find or construct meaning in this language or activity?
Why do teachers need to check that meaning is accessible?
Listening : active use of language to access other people’s meaning.
Speaking : active use of langauge to espress meanings so that other people can make sense of them.
Speaking is much more demanding because speaking require support for understanding and for production.
Analysis of a Task in Action
- The setting and the task
- Task as plan
- Language used in the task
- Use of formulaic language
- Selecting and adapting language on-line.
Discourse Skills Development In Childhood
The foreign langauge discourse development of children is contrained by their cognitive and social development.
To becoming a good speaker than simply acquaring the syntax, phonology, and vocabular.
Development of Conversational Skills in Childhood
- The maturation of social and cognitive understanding over the 5-12 age range has implications for foreign language use and learning. When children are asked to take part in conversations that are beyond their development, they cannot fullt partucipate and may be forced to repeat without understanding.
- As listeners, they understand other people’s talk relative to their current level of social and cognitive resources.
- Children up to age seven seem to blame themselves if they do not understand something said to them, rather than judging what was said to them might have been inadequate.
- Children seem to begin to really develop their understanding of other people’s actions and minds around four years of age, it takes much of childhood to gather enough experience and use of it to construct a full awareness of how people operate socially and mentally.
- Familiarity of content and context in foreign language use will help children as speakers and as listeners.
Developing Children’s Discourse Repertoires
Learners of a foreign language increase their range of repertoire of discourse skills and types.
- Through interaction with an increasing range people.
- In different situations.
- With different goals and different topics.
- Moving from the familiar settings of home, family and classroom to wider situations.
- Types of talk, includes: Narrative, Description, Instructional, Argument, Opinions, etc.
Effective Support for Children’s Foreign Language Discourse Skills
- Support through motivational topics: Reachers must adjust tasks and topics to related to pupil’s interest.
- Support through task structure: Tasks should have a clear goal or purpose.
- Suppport through language practice: Need to onclude exposure to the language by providing other learning opportunities.
Short Activities for Learning The Spoken Language
- Listen and Identify
- Listen and take away
- Find the odd one out
- Listen and put
- Look and say
- Listen and choose
- Listen and sort
- Tennis Game
- Guess my animal-questions
- Guess my animal-actions
Focus on sounds in discourse
- Poems and chants
- Tongue twisters
Supporting The Spoken Langauge with Written Language
- Using dialogues and discourse
- The language learning opportunities of dialogues
Dialogues may offer :
- Genuine samples of spoken language
- Contextualized sentence patterns that are not very like the spoken language
- Written sentences that resemble what people might say
- Practice of sentence patterns-a grammatical drill in disguise
- Scripts, rather like short theatrical plays.
- Other sources of spoken discourses
So, all of those is explaining for learning the spoken language. And in this chapter seems related with my experienced.
Well, when i was in kindergarten or elementary or junior high school, i learned English Language which wasn’t my mother tongue. My mother tounge is Bahasa. My teachers taught English very well, active and interest. so, maybe that’s why I love to learning English.
I remembered my teacher wanted me and my chairmate to came in the front of class and made a conversation about greetings. Not only that, there are many more what activity. The next, my teacher gave us task to find a folk tale and read it loud. Then, drama and storytelling.
When i did all of that. I felt enjoy to do it. I like to speak in English its make me like I’m the antive speaker eventhought there still any mistakes about the grammar and spelling the words. Everytime my teacher wanted me and my friends made a conversation about the topic teachers gave, i always excited and eagerly.
Oke, then, i think that’s all from me. Hope this blog usefull for you. Thank you for read my blog. See you for the next. Byeeeeeeeee